Sunday, June 27, 2010

Diabetes exposure in utero increases risk of early ESRD

Being exposed to diabetes in utero substantially increases the risk of premature end-stage renal disease (ESRD), found Robert G Nelson, MD (left).
The finding comes from a study of Pima Indians 5 to 44 years old with type 2 diabetes, 102 of whom were the offspring of diabetic mothers and 1,748 without diabetes exposure in utero.
“Pima Indians have the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. We’ve been studying the population since 1965, so we have extensive longitudinal data that allows us to look not only at disease in the parents, but in the offspring, and follow them into adulthood,” said Nelson.
An earlier study by Nelson and colleagues showed that exposure to diabetes in utero caused a dramatic increase in the development of diabetes in youth. About one-third of cases of diabetes in young adulthood are attributable to diabetes exposure in utero, he said.
Genetic susceptibility from the mother can partially explain the early onset of diabetes in the offspring, Nelson said. Intrauterine exposure also is associated with higher birth weight and higher weight in childhood and adolescence compared with persons without such exposure.
In the current study, the participants were followed for a maximum of 40 years, from their onset of diabetes until either death, onset of ESRD, or age 45 years.
Fifty-seven of the participants who were exposed to diabetes in utero developed ESRD before age 45, which was 4 times the rate of ESRD compared with controls who were not exposed to diabetes in utero.
Twenty percent of ESRD that occurs in the population before age 45 is attributable to exposure to diabetes in utero,” said Nelson. Assuming this relationship is causal, “if you delayed the development of diabetes until after the onset of childbearing years, you would reduce the incidence of diabetic ESRD by about 20%,” he said.
If the offspring are exposed to diabetes in utero, diabetes prevention efforts in the form of lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise) are needed to slow or prevent the development of diabetes and its complications, Nelson said.
~ Drug Topics ~

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